Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint · Franz Brentano. Routledge () Brentano and Wundt: Empirical and Experimental Bradford. Franz Brentano (). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. I. The Concept and Purpose of Psychology. Source: Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. It is noteworthy.

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Franz Brentano, Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint – PhilPapers

And so psychology offers us a drama similar to the one which occurred in the natural sciences. Hence, he does adopt the form of psychologism Husserl seems to have had in mind in the Prolegomena to his Logical Investigationswhere he defines logical psychologism as a position according to which: When former students of his took a critical approach to his own work, however, when they criticized some of his doctrines and modified others to adapt them for their own goals, Brentano reacted bitterly.

About Franz Brentano Franz Brentano was a pivotal figure in the development of twentieth century philosophy. Mill himself believed it to be an established fact that both types of case exist in the domain of inner phenomena. In fact, Aristotle, who was the first to make a classification of science and to expound its separate branches in separate essays, entitled one of his works peri psychis. A charismatic teacher, Brentano exerted a strong influence on the work of Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Christian von Ehrenfels, Kasimir Twardowski, Carl Stumpf, and Anton Marty, among others, and thereby played a central role in the philosophical development of central Europe in the early twentieth century.

Intentionality Brentano is probably best known for having introduced the notion of intentionality to contemporary philosophy.

And no one who accepts the theory of the substantiality of the soul will deny that whatever can be established with reference to the soul is also related to mental phenomena. For, he says, sounding exactly like a modern psychologist, such an investigation is not the province of one who studies the soul, but of one who studies the body. This distinction strongly influenced other members of the Brentano School, mainly the two students for who the notion of intentionality had the most central place, Meinong and Husserl.

Brentano psyhcology intended to produce a large work consisting of six books, the first five of which would cover psychology as a science, mental phenomena in general, and their three basic classes, while the sixth would deal with the mind-body problem, the soul, and immortality.

He does distinguish between substance and accidents, but argues that both are but fictions cum fundamentum in re.

Their work was continued by other, more careful editors, but has by far not yet been completed: Psychology from an Empirical Standpointtransl. Thus, when I think about the city of Paris, I am actually thinking of a mental object that is part of my act of thinking, and not about the actual city. The general theoretical sciences form a kind of hierarchy in which each higher step is erected on the basis of the one below it.


Franz Brentano (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Brentano accounts for these standpoitn by arguing that an object towards which we are directed does not immediately vanish from consciousness once the mental act is over. Every mental phenomenon is characterized by what the Scholastics of the Middle Ages called the intentional or mental inexistence of an object, and what we might call, though not wholly unambiguously, reference to a content, direction toward an object which is not to be understood here as meaning a thingor immanent frabz.

In spite of the modification in the concept, then, there seems to be ppsychology to prevent us from defining psychology in the terms in which Aristotle once defined it, namely as the science of the soul. But it is said to exert a most powerful reciprocal influence vrentano them.

Consciousness in 19th Century Philosophy Brentano: Languages Eesti Edit links. He first characterizes this notion with the following words, which have become the classical, albeit not completely unambiguous formulation of the intentionality thesis: Determination of Their Natural Order. The Psychology of Aristotletransl.

Mental Phenomena in General 1. Experience and AnalysisVienna: Drom, Products, and Things: Weber for paving the way for this law, and a philosophically trained physicist such as Fechner for establishing it in a more extended sphere. Throughout his life he influenced a great number of students, many of who became important philosophers and psychologists in their own rights, such as Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Christian von Ehrenfels, Anton Marty, Carl Stumpf, Kasimir Twardowski, as well as Sigmund Freud.

Rather than accepting the notion of an immanent content, Meinong argues that the intentional relation is always a relation between the mental act and an object. Anyone who could push his doubt this far would reach a state of absolute doubt, a scepticism which would certainly destroy itself, because it would have destroyed any firm basis upon which it could endeavour to attack knowledge.

Psychology from An Empirical Standpoint

He admits, however, that we can have mental acts of various degrees of intensity. Perhaps it alone will be in a position to provide us the means to counteract the decadence which sadly interrupts the otherwise steadily ascending cultural development from time to time. Aesthetics, finally, is based on the most basic class of mental phenomena: Writing stajdpoint Difference Jacques Derrida. And it is precisely this task which appears, at the present time, to have fallen into disrepute and to have become impossible, at least from the standpoint of those who reject psychology as the science of the soul.


Unlike the first English translation inthis edition contains the text corresponding to Brentano’s original edition. And it is not necessary to go back too lsychology years to find the beginnings of a more satisfactory development in physiology, and attempts at practical application followed immediately. For example, it will definitely be the task of the psychologist to ascertain the first mental phenomena which are aroused by a physical stimulus, even if he cannot dispense with looking at physiological facts in so doing.

By the same token, in the case of voluntary movements of the body, the psychologist will have to establish the ultimate and immediate mental antecedents of the whole series of physical changes which are connected with them, but it will be the task of the physiologist to investigate the ultimate and immediate physical causes of sensation, even though in so doing he must obviously also look at the mental phenomenon.

If someone doubts that all differences which are just noticeable are equal, then as far as he is concerned, being “just noticeable” is no longer a characteristic property of a constant magnitude. And once again, chemistry had already achieved many splendid results while physiology was yet to be born. On the Existence of Godtransl.

Franz Brentano

The differences in the production and distribution of goods by different peoples and at different times, in his opinion, would depend to a certain extent on differences in the states of their knowledge of physical matters, but would also have psychological causes.

For a detailed history of Brentano’s Nachlasscf. The Philosophy of Brentano. This was possible only by temporarily giving up the Austrian citizenship and, in consequence, the job as full professor at the University.

This is the task to which psychology first devoted itself, and which gave it its first impetus for development. However, Brentano was ill with smallpox after publishing the first two books. If this were possible, we could recognise the tree, not from its fruit, but from its very first budding leaves, and could transplant it immediately to a place suited to its nature. Happily, the opposite is true. Ort is it not obviously the task of the psychologist to ascertain the basic elements of mental phenomena?

He points out that inner perception must not be mixed up with inner observation, i. The preceding discussion should be sufficient to clarify the general meaning of this definition.